Scholars are divided as to whether the tetrarchy originated from Gaul or Macedon, or was a mix of both traditions. However, a systematic study of the evidence suggests that Mithridates VI bestowed the tetrarchic title on four (not twelve) Galatian princes for the first time around 100 BC. Due to internal Galatian rivalries, the term lost its etymological link to a four-fold structure, and could be bestowed on rulers not deemed worthy of the diadem. This is attested for Mark Antony ater Philippi. He granted the title to the sons of the Idumaean strategos Antipater in return for his services, whereas the King of the Ituraeans, Ptolemy, son of Mennaios, was demoted to the rank of a tetrarch and high priest as a punishment. His son Lysanias usurped the royal title while enjoying the protection of the Parthians, but was executed by Antony for this. His grandson Lysanias of Abilene was among the last tetrarchs to rule by the grace of Rome.