Research Area D investigated ancient theories of space and ancient sciences that presuppose a conception of space. Ancient cosmology and ancient physics were at the center of this area’s research. The concept of space also gave rise to traditional questions of metaphysics, such as how spatiality is to be explained and whether space can be described as having an independent existence of its own. This area was also concerned with spatial thought in mathematics, philosophy, logic and dialectic and with the use of spatial models for heuristic purposes as in medicine and psychology. Last but not least, this area examined the theoretical reflection on the variety of spatial structures found in cultural theories, cartography and the most diverse specialized disciplines. The investigations in this area will take place in four research groups.