The challenge of my paper begins with definitions. Terms such as „pictures“ or „text“ come from European languages. Contemporary scholars do not know if exact equivalents did exist in Mesoamerican native languages. However, since the late formative period, “graphical communication systems” were developed in large parts of Mesoamerica. They shared contents such as naming of individuals and places, calendars, rituals and related ‘gods’ i.e. personified natural powers, but they developed in different ways, some strongly depending on language (Maya), function (Zapotec, Mixtec), or needs (Aztec). The distinction between images and texts seems to be possible in the case of the Maya writing system, it is more difficult to determine in the Aztec case that has overcome to us from early colonial examples only. In the case of the classic and post classic pre-Columbian graphical communication systems developed by the Zapotec, Mixtec and pre-Aztec Nahua speaking people, a distinction between text and image seems not to be possible at all. However, depending on definition, materiality, color, gesture and oral interpretation seem to have complemented the communication systems in similar ways as pictures and texts.